The Jewish Press Weekly Luach
by Rav Yaakov Klass
Vol. LXXI No. 40 5781
New York City
CANDLE LIGHTING TIME
October 2, 2020 – 14 Tishrei 5781
6:17 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sabbath Ends: 7:15 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sabbath Ends Rabbenu Tam: 7:46 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Weekly Reading: Sukkos Festival (see below)
Weekly Haftara: Sukkos Festival (see below)
Daf Yomi: Eruvin 54
Mishna Yomit: Kelim 14:4-5
Halacha Yomit: Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 198:5-9
Rambam Yomi: Hilchos Na’arah Besulah chap. 1-3
Earliest time for Tallis and Tefillin: 6:04 a.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sunrise: 6:53 a.m. NYC E.D.T.
Latest Kerias Shema: 9:49 a.m. NYC E.D.T.
Sunset: 6:35 p.m. NYC E.D.T.
Friday, erev Sukkos: Aside from our usual erev Shabbos and erev Yom Tov preparations, we have to make sure that the sukkah we will use is finished and ready to accommodate us for fulfilling the mitzva of eating and sleeping in the sukkah. This is also the last opportunity to acquire the Four Species: esrog, lulav hadassim and aravos. These should preferably be of exceptional quality – mehuddarim – but have to satisfy, at the very least, the minimum requirements qualifying them as kosher to fulfill the mitzva (see Orach Chayyim 645-650, Hilchos Lulav).We light candles at 6:17 p.m. (N.Y.C. E.D.T.) – that is 18 minutes before shekiah (sunset) – and recite Lehadlik ner shel Shabbos ve’shel Yom Tov as well as Shehecheyanu.
Mincha: Usual weekday tefilla followed by Kabbalas Shabbos. Nusach Ashkenaz say only Mizmor Shir LeYom HaShabbos, and Nusach Sefarad say, in addition, Mizmor LeDavid and the first two and last two stanzas of Lechah Dodi. All conclude with Mourner’s Kaddish. (Bameh Madlikin or KeGavna is not said.)
Maariv: Usual Shabbos service with additions for Yom Tov as found in the Machzor. The Shemoneh Esreh is that of Shalosh Regalim (with additions for Shabbos). At the conclusion of the Shemoneh Esreh the chazzan and congregation recite Va’yechulu, and then the chazzan says the Beracha Me’ein Sheva, followed by Kaddish Tiskabbel, Aleinu, LeDavid Hashem Ori (Sefarad have said LeDavid Hashem Ori following Mincha) and their respective Mourner’s Kaddish recitals.
In congregations where it is the custom to recite Kiddush in the synagogue after Maariv, Kiddush can only be publicly recited in synagogues where a sukkah is available.
Eating in the sukkah: Upon returning home we do not tarry but go straight to the sukkah (lest it rain later on). We recite the appropriate Ushpizin (“guests”) invitation to welcome to our sukkah the seven faithful shepherds of the people of Israel – Avraham, Yitzchak, Yaakov, Yosef, Moshe, Aharon and David HaMelech. On each of the seven days one of them is the “guest of honor” leading the others, starting with our Patriarch Avraham on the first night.
We start the Kiddush with Va’yechulu and proceed with the Kiddush of Yom Tov with inclusion of Shabbos. We say four berachos: Borei pri hagafen, Mekaddesh HaShabbos veYisrael ve’hazemanim, Leishev basukkah, and Shehecheyanu.
On the first night one is dutybound to eat in the sukkah even if it involves tza’ar (pain). This does not apply on the other nights and days, when one who is extremely uncomfortable (due to rain, or extreme cold, etc.) is relieved of this obligation. (See Orach Chayyim 640:4 and Rema ad loc., who qualifies this halacha; see also Rema 639:2 regarding sleeping in the sukkah.)
If it rains on the first evening (and the rain is such that it is not likely to stop) we make Kiddush in the sukkah, we wash (for bread) and eat a kezayit (olive-size) piece of challah in the sukkah, and then return to the house to eat the rest of the meal. (Commenting on a discussion regarding how long one is required to wait for the rain to stop, the Mishna Berura, 0.C. 639:5, notes that it is proper to wait no longer than until midnight.)
In Birkas Hamazon we add Retzeh (for Shabbos), and Ya’aleh VeYavo and HaRachaman hu yakim lanu es sukkas David hanofales during all seven days of Sukkos. Each meal (or snack) requires the blessing of Leishev basukkah as well as the appropriate berachos for the various foods.
Shacharis: Usual tefillos of Shabbos and Yom Tov for Pesukei DeZimra. At conclusion of Nishmas the chazzan starts with HaKel (not Shochen Ad). During the recital of Birkos Kerias Shema we say Kel Adon and LaKel asher shavas because of Shabbos. The Shemoneh Esreh is that of Shalosh Regalim with references to Shabbos, followed by complete Hallel. (We do not take the Four Species since it is Shabbos.)
In some congregations (Minhag Sefarad, as well as some Ashkenaz customs) the Aron Hakodesh is opened after Hallel, and Hoshanos (Om Netzura) are recited. (Nusach Sefarad now say Mizmor Shir LeYom HaShabbos, LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Kaddish recitals). The chazzan says Kaddish Tiskabbel.
We remove two Torah scrolls from the Ark. In the first we read from Parashas Emor (Vayikra 22:26-23:44) and call up seven aliyos (since it is Shabbos). In the second scroll the Maftir reads from Parashas Pinchas (Bamidbar 29:12-16). The Haftara is Hineh yom ba (Zechariah 14:1-21). In the berachos after the Haftara we mention both Shabbos and Yom Tov. We say Yekum Purkan (No Kah Keli since it is Shabbos), followed by Ashrei, Yehallelu, etc. and return the Sifrei Torah to the Ark.
Mussaf: Half-Kaddish, then the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim with references to Shabbos. In the chazzan’s repetition the Kohanim go up to duchan, but the congregation does not say Ribbono shel Olam or Yehi Ratzon since it is Shabbos. At conclusion of chazzan’s repetition most Nusach Ashkenaz congregations now say Hoshanos (Om Netzura). Chazzan then recites Kaddish Tiskabbel.
We conclude the service with Ein KeElokenu, Aleinu (Nusach Ashkenaz say Mizmor Shir LeYom HaShabbos and LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Mourner’s Kaddish recitals). Some congregations conclude with An’im Zemiros and Mourner’s Kaddish.
Kiddush: (Kiddush in the synagogue may only be recited if a sukkah is available.) The order of the daytime Kiddush on Shabbos is the following: Veshamru, Zachor, Al ken beirach…, Eleh mo’adei, Va’yedabber Moshe…, followed by the two blessings: Borei pri hagafen (on wine) and Leishev basukkah.
Mincha: Ashrei, U’va LeTziyyon, and we remove one Sefer Torah from the Ark. We read from Parashas VeZos HaBeracha (Devarim 33:1-7), call up three aliyos (Kohen, Levi, Yisrael) and return the Torah scroll to the Ark. Chazzan recites half-Kaddish and all say the silent Shemoneh Esreh (of Shalosh Regalim, with mention of Shabbos). Following the repetition, the chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel and we conclude with Aleinu and Mourner’s Kaddish.
2nd day Yom Tov – Motza’ei Shabbos – Candle Lighting: The berachos for candle lighting are Lehadlik ner shel Yom Tov and Shehecheyanu. The earliest time to light is 7:15 p.m. (N.Y.C. E.D.T.) According to the Gaon Rav Henkin (quoting the Mishna Berura, Orach Chayyim 296:6), women have to say Baruch Hamavdil bein kodesh lekodesh prior to lighting the Yom Tov candles (from an existing flame). He also rules that it is preferable to wait with candle lighting as well as all preparations for Yom Tov a full 72 minutes after sunset – 7:46 p.m. (N.Y.C. E.D.T.), or a minimum of`60 minutes after sunset – 7:28 p.m (N.Y.C. E.D.T.).
Maariv: Usual tefilla of Yom Tov as found in the Machzor. We add Vatodi’enu in the Shalosh Regalim Shemoneh Esreh since it is Motza’ei Shabbos, followed by Kaddish Tiskabbel by the chazzan. We conclude with Aleinu, LeDavid Hashem Ori and their respective Mourner’s Kaddish recitals.
Our Patriarch Yitzchak leads the honored Ushpizin on the second night. Kiddush of Yom Tov, concluding with the blessings Leishev basukkah and Shehecheyanu.
Shacharis – Sunday morning: Pesukei DeZimra, and chazzan chants from HaKel. Birkos Kerias Shema follow the Yom Tov weekday pattern. The silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim is followed by the chazzan’s repetition.
Lulav and Esrog: We take the lulav (to which three hadassim are bound on the right side and two aravos on the left side – see Mishna Berura, Orach Chayyim 651:1) in our right hand and the esrog (upside down, the pitom facing downward) in our left hand and recite the blessing Al netilas lulav … in a manner oveir le’asiyasan, that is, before we have physically accomplished the “taking” of the lulav and esrog. We next recite Shehecheyanu with the esrog in an upright position (with the pitom facing upward) and wave the lulav in six directions (see chart – Sequence of Wavings).
We recite Hallel while holding the lulav and esrog, waving at Hodu and Ana Hashem (SEE CHART). At the conclusion of Hallel some congregations (Nusach Sefarad and some Ashkenaz) say Hoshanos (Lema’an Amitach) as found in the Machzor. We put away the lulav and esrog and the chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel.
We open the Ark and follow the usual text, including the Thirteen Middos and Ribbono shel Olam. We remove two Torah scrolls and read from Parashas Emor (Vayikra 22:26-23:44) in the first scroll, and call up 5 aliyos. We then place the second scroll next to the first one on the bimah [desk] and the Reader recites half-Kaddish. The Maftir reads from the second scroll in Parashas Pinchas (Bamidbar 29:12-16). The Haftara is VaYikahalu el haMelech Shlomo (I Kings 8:2).
After the Birkos HaHaftara the chazzan chants Kah Keili, followed by Ashrei and Yehallelu, and we return the Torah scrolls to the Ark. The chazzan recites half-Kaddish.
Mussaf: All say the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim. The Kohanim go up to duchan during the chazzan’s repetition, and this time we do say Ribbono shel Olam and Yehi Ratzon. (At the conclusion of chazzan’s repetition most Nusach Ashkenaz congregations say Hoshanos at this point – see Shacharis). The chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel and we conclude the service with Ein KeElokenu, Aleinu (Nusach Ashkenaz now add Shir Shel Yom [Hayom Yom Rishon] and LeDavid Hashem Ori) and their respective Kaddish recitals. Some congregations conclude with An’im Zemiros and Mourner’s Kaddish.
Sukkah: The text for the daytime Kiddush is Eleh Mo’adei and Va’yedabber Moshe, followed by the blessings of Borei pri hagafen (on wine) and Leishev basukkah.
Mincha: Ashrei, U’va LeTziyyon, the chazzan recites half-Kaddish, and all say the silent Shemoneh Esreh of Shalosh Regalim. Following the repetition, the chazzan recites Kaddish Tiskabbel and we conclude with Aleinu and Mourner’s Kaddish.
Maariv: The earliest zeman after sunset is 7:12 p.m. (N.Y.C. E.D.T.). Later zemanim according to Piskei HaRav Henkin for Motza’ei Yom Tov are 72 minutes after shekiah (sunset) – 7:44 p.m. (N.Y.C. E.D.T.), or 60 minutes after sunset – 7:32 p.m. (N.Y.C. E.D.T.).
The Maariv prayer (for the first day of Chol Hamo’ed) is the usual weekday tefilla, with the addition of Ata Chonanta and Ya’aleh VeYavo with mention of Sukkos.
Havdala: Havdala is recited in the sukkah. We do not say the blessings for light and spices, but say Borei pri hagafen and Hamavdil bein kodesh lechol, concluding with Leishev basukkah. In the Ushpizin prayer our Patriarch Yaakov Ieads the honored guests.
The following chapters of Tehillim are being recited by many congregations and yeshivas for our brothers and sisters in Eretz Yisrael: Chapters 83, 130, 142. – Y.K.